Bitumen can be found in the natural state, but the bitumen used nowadays for the surfacing of roads and a variety of industrial uses is produced in refineries from special qualities of crude oil.
Bitumen 60/70 garde has been used in construction since ancient times, thanks to its key waterproofing properties. Unmodified bitumen is a highly viscous liquid, and its tendency to become brittle at low temperatures and soft at high temperatures has limited its use.
For many decades, bitumen has been successfully used in asphalt concrete to pave roads. Despite continuous improvements to bitumen production processes, mix design and pavement design, there are limits to the extent that bitumen can surmount the challenge. Accelerating wear and tear caused by heavy traffic and harsh climates are taking a toll. In addition, there are increasing demands for quieter and safer roads. Polymer modification of bitumen is helping to overcome the challenges. Today, millions of tons of polymer modified bitumen is used by the global roads industry.
Bitumen is obtained essentially by distillation of a blend of crudes containing at least one bitumen crude. The others, which are lighter, go to satisfy requirements for different types of fuel and combustibles. Contrary to a common but mistaken idea, bitumen is not an oil residue that the petroleum industry wants to get rid of at little cost. In reality, to produce bitumen of good quality with constant properties, refiners meticulously select one or more bitumen crudes, following very strict internal approval procedures. In its natural state, bitumen is found oozing out onto the surface of the earth.
Sodium bicarbonate is commonly known as baking soda. It is used in cooking, as a cleaning agent or in tooth paste. sodium bicarbonate food grade is also used for preparation of dialysate solution. The sodium bicarbonate solution in dialysis clinics is often referred to as “Bicarb Concentrate.” Bicarb concentrate is mixed with acetic acid solution or citric acid to prepare dialysate solution.
Bicarbonate of soda or baking soda has many different uses in the household. Although much more expensive products have been developed over the years to do the same jobs, baking soda can work for you just as well, if not better. Use it in the following ways:
Caustic soda is the common name for the compound sodium hydroxide. This is the natural coproduct when chlorine is produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Its chemical formula is NaOH. Physically it is a white crystalline substance and non volatile in aqueous solution available in flakes, pellets and granules. Caustic soda flake characteristics property makes it indispensable in a large number of chemical processes. It is soluble in water, ethanol and methanol but is insoluble in ether and non polar solvents.
Apart from the household products it is also used in many chemical industries as strong chemical base and in bulk often handled as an aqueous solution as it cheaper in comparison to other base chemicals. It is majoring used in the manufacturing of other chemicals and when it reacts with other metals produces hydrogen gas which ignites with oxygen present in the air.
“Caustic” (as it is commonly called), is a white solid in its ‘pure’ form. It is mostly traded as an aqueous solution, typically concentrated to 50%, but many other concentrations are commercially available depending on the application of the compound. Caustic soda suppliers are also traded as concentrated solid pellets, flakes or bulk fused (about 98% concentration).